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The Impact of Executive Coaching: Insights from a Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

In a meta-analysis titled, "The effects of executive coaching on behaviors, attitudes, and personal characteristics: a meta-analysis of randomized control trial studies," published in Frontiers in Psychology, researchers analyzed 20 studies to investigate how executive coaching influences different outcomes. Findings reveal which specific outcomes are positively impacted by executive coaching and explore whether the length of coaching programs or the number of coaching sessions contributes to successful results. This study highlights executive coaching as a valuable resource for organizational development and growth. In this insight article, we summarize the research and glean insights that could help you optimize your coaching practice for optimal outcomes.


Following the PRISMA Framework, researchers concentrated on the domain of organizational coaching, analyzing 20 distinct studies to determine the varying impacts of executive coaching on diverse outcomes.

The studies incorporated into the meta-analysis were selected through a comprehensive literature search, utilizing targeted keywords across well-respected databases such as ICM Research Portal, Research Gate, SAGE Journals Online, and more. Selected studies were based on criteria including adherence to Kilburg's definition of executive coaching, use of external coaches, study design, and availability of sufficient statistical data.

The outcomes being analyzed in the context of executive coaching were categorized into three distinct groups:

  • Behaviors: Performance (ex. goal attainment) , Leadership (ex. compassion, developmental planning), Cognitive Abilities (ex. adopting new behaviors, goal strategy)

  • Attitudes: Organization (ex. commitment), People (ex. communication/collaboration), Job/Task 

  • Person Characteristics: Traits (ex. resilience, self-evals), States (ex. self-efficacy, work ability)

Within the study, the effects of coaching program length and session number on coaching effectiveness were also analyzed.


Findings from the study provide insights into the various impacts of executive coaching, highlighting its influence on behavioral change, attitudes, person characteristics, and the significance of program structure and length.

  1. Effectiveness in behavior change: Executive coaching is particularly effective in influencing behavioral outcomes, especially in cognitive behavioral activities. This signifies coaching's strong impact on practical, actionable changes in work behavior.

  2. Impact on attitudes and personal characteristics: Coaching also positively affects attitudes and person characteristics, though to a lesser extent than behavior. This underscores coaching's role in shaping broader aspects of executive mentality and self-perception.

  3. The influence of program length: The length of the coaching program significantly affects attitude changes, suggesting that longer programs might be more beneficial for altering attitudes.

  4. The influence of session volume: The study found no significant moderation effect of the number of sessions on coaching outcomes, indicating that the quality and structure of sessions may be more critical than their quantity.

  5. Outcomes of executive coaching: The study reveals that executive coaching significantly enhances self-efficacy, goal attainment, psychological capital, and resilience. However, its impact on job satisfaction, although positive, wasn't statistically significant.

A consideration

This meta-analysis supports the effectiveness of executive coaching in organizations, suggesting its potential application beyond just leadership roles. It could be beneficial for other employee groups, like production staff, to aid in their development. This recommendation is based on the significant impact coaching has on behavioral cognitive activities and performance behaviors, particularly in areas like goal strategy and goal attainment. This broader application could enhance overall employee performance and development within the organization.

Relevancy of this meta-analysis

The meta-analysis summarized above offers several insights that are paramount for executive coaches in optimizing their coaching strategies and understanding the broader impact of their work, making this research highly relevant for several reasons:

  1. Focus on evidence-based coaching: The study provides empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of executive coaching. This is crucial for coaches to validate their practices and methodologies, as work grounded in scientifically backed results boosts credibility and confidence.

  2. Addresses publication bias: The study's approach to addressing publication bias lends more credibility to its findings. This reassures coaches that the results they are reading about are not just positive outliers but a more accurate representation of the impact of executive coaching.

  3. Focus on outcomes: The categorization of outcomes into behaviors, attitudes, and person characteristics allows coaches to tailor their approaches based on specific client needs. For example, knowing that executive coaching is particularly effective in influencing behavior change, especially in cognitive behavioral activities, can guide coaches to focus on actionable changes in work behavior.

  4. Program length and session impact: The finding that program length significantly affects attitude changes suggests that coaches might need to consider longer programs for deeper attitudinal shifts. Conversely, the lack of a significant moderation effect of session number on outcomes indicates that the quality and structure of sessions are more important than quantity. This insight can help coaches design more effective programs.

  5. Broader applications: The suggestion that executive coaching could benefit employee groups beyond leadership roles, like production staff, opens up new avenues for coaching practices. This could lead to a more holistic approach to organizational development, where coaching is not just limited to the executive level but is part of a company-wide strategy for improvement.

  6. Tailored strategies: By understanding the specific areas where coaching has the most significant impact (e.g., self-efficacy, goal attainment, psychological capital, and resilience), coaches can develop more targeted strategies. They can focus on structuring offerings in these areas to maximize the impact of their coaching.


Nicolau, A., Candel, O. S., Constantin, T., & Kleingeld, A. (2023). The effects of executive coaching on behaviors, attitudes, and personal characteristics: a meta-analysis of randomized control trial studies. Frontiers in psychology, 14, 1089797.

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