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The Six Thinking Hats Method

The Six Thinking Hats method, developed in the early 1980s by Dr. Edward de Bono, who is known for pioneering numerous thinking techniques, is a practical and effective approach to problem-solving and decision-making. It's designed to facilitate more effective, focused, and collaborative thinking in group discussions and individual decision-making. Leveraging information published by the organization established to promote the work of Dr. Edward de Bono in teaching thinking as a skill, we explore the Six Thinking Hats Method, its benefits, and a step-by-step process for facilitating the exercise.

About the Six Thinking Hats Method

The method uses six colored hats, each representing a different aspect or mode of thinking, to structure and guide the thinking process. By metaphorically putting on and taking off these hats, participants can switch their way of thinking, allowing for a more rounded and multifaceted exploration of issues, ideas, or decisions. The six hats and their corresponding colors and thinking modes are:

  1. White Hat: Focuses on data and information. Wearing this hat, individuals concentrate on available data, gaps in knowledge, and what needs to be learned. It's all about objectively looking at the information at hand.

  2. Red Hat: Emphasizes emotions, feelings, and intuitions. When using this hat, participants express their feelings and intuitions without the need for justification. It allows the group to understand the emotional response to an issue.

  3. Black Hat: Represents caution and critical judgment. This hat is used to identify potential problems, weaknesses, and barriers. It's about being cautious and conservative, highlighting the reasons why an idea or proposal might not work.

  4. Yellow Hat: Symbolizes optimism and the positive side of things. Wearing the yellow hat, individuals explore the benefits, value, and feasibility of an idea. It helps to balance the critical judgment of the black hat by identifying the positives.

  5. Green Hat: Stands for creativity and new ideas. This hat encourages creativity, seeking alternatives, and new solutions to problems. It's about thinking outside the box and generating fresh perspectives.

  6. Blue Hat: Represents control and the organization of the thinking process itself. The person wearing the blue hat focuses on managing the thinking process, ensuring that guidelines are followed, and summarizing outcomes. It's often worn by the facilitator or leader of the session.

Benefits of the Six Thinking Hats Method

The Six Thinking Hats method is particularly effective for several reasons beyond its direct benefits in structured thinking and decision-making, including the following. These three advantages work together to create a more positive, productive, and creative environment for group discussions and decision-making processes, making the Six Thinking Hats method a powerful tool in various organizational, educational, and team settings.

  • Reduces Adversarial Thinking: By assigning different perspectives or modes of thinking to different "hats," the method depersonalizes critique and reduces the natural tendency towards adversarial thinking. When critique or negative feedback is given under the Black Hat, for example, it is seen as a part of the process rather than a personal attack. This encourages open communication and makes it easier for individuals to share and critique ideas without fear of offending others, fostering a more inclusive and respectful dialogue.

  • Enhances Focus and Efficiency: The method allows groups to focus on one thing at a time, which significantly increases meeting efficiency and productivity. By compartmentalizing different types of thinking, it reduces the scatter and distraction often present in unstructured discussions.

  • Facilitates Parallel Thinking: The Six Thinking Hats method promotes parallel thinking, where participants think in the same direction at the same time, rather than opposing or competing viewpoints clashing. This approach minimizes confrontations and misunderstandings, as everyone explores the positive, negative, creative, and factual aspects of an issue together. By aligning participants' thought processes, it enables a more synchronized and harmonious exploration of topics, which can lead to more cohesive and unanimous decision-making.

Facilitating the Six Thinking Hats Method

​​Facilitating the Six Thinking Hats exercise with an executive coaching group can lead to productive discussions, innovative solutions, and enhanced team dynamics. Here's a step-by-step guide to help you effectively implement this method.


  1. Understand the Hats: Familiarize yourself thoroughly with the function and purpose of each hat. Knowing when and how to use each hat is crucial for facilitating the exercise effectively.

  2. Define the Objective: Clearly define the purpose of the session. Whether it's solving a problem, generating new ideas, or making a decision, having a clear objective will guide the discussion.

  3. Set the Ground Rules: Explain the rules and the structure of the exercise to the participants. Emphasize the importance of focusing on one hat at a time and respecting each other's contributions.

  4. Materials: Prepare materials needed for the session. This could include actual hats, colored cards, or simply markers to signify the change from one hat to another.

Facilitation Steps

  1. Introduction (Blue Hat): Start the session with the Blue Hat to outline the agenda, the objective of the meeting, and the sequence of hats you plan to use. This sets the stage for what's to come.

  2. Information Gathering (White Hat): Invite participants to share all known facts and information about the issue at hand. Encourage objective thinking and discourage interpretation or judgment.

  3. Emotions and Feelings (Red Hat): Allow participants a few minutes to express their feelings or intuitions about the situation. No justification or explanation is needed for feelings expressed during this stage.

  4. Critical Thinking (Black Hat): Critique the ideas on the table. Look for potential problems, difficulties, and why something might not work. This is not about being negative but rather cautious and realistic.

  5. Optimistic Viewpoint (Yellow Hat): Shift focus to optimism and explore the value and benefits of the ideas. Encourage participants to look for opportunities and solutions, even in the face of challenges.

  6. Creative Thinking (Green Hat): This is the time for generating new ideas and alternative solutions. Encourage out-of-the-box thinking and build on the ideas generated under the Yellow Hat.

  7. Process Control (Blue Hat again): Conclude the session with the Blue Hat to summarize the discussion, outline next steps, and make decisions if needed. Reflect on the process and gather feedback for improvement.

Tips for Success

  • Time Management: Allocate a specific amount of time for each hat to keep the session on track. Adjust based on the complexity of the topic and the size of the group.

  • Flexibility: Be prepared to switch hats as needed based on how the conversation evolves. The sequence suggested is a guide, not a strict rule.

  • Encourage Participation: Make sure everyone has the opportunity to contribute, especially when wearing the Red and Green Hats, where diverse perspectives are invaluable.

  • Debrief: After the session, discuss what was learned and how it can be applied. This helps solidify the value of the exercise and reinforces the importance of diverse thinking styles.

Implementing the Six Thinking Hats method with these steps can help your executive coaching group navigate complex issues more effectively, leading to more insightful and productive outcomes.

The main takeaway

The Six Thinking Hats method can lead to more efficient meetings and decision-making processes by structuring thinking and allowing for the exploration of subjects from multiple perspectives. It encourages open and constructive dialogue, reduces confrontation, and promotes understanding and cooperation among team members. This approach is widely used in business, education, and beyond to improve creativity, problem-solving, and team dynamics.


Thinking as a skill: De Bono. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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